Harare, Zimbabwe – On August 23, six million registered Zimbabwean voters will go to the polls to decide on the nation’s president.

Whereas the main focus is totally on the high-stakes presidential contest, throughout the Southern African nation’s 10 provinces, the voters may also solid votes for native authorities representatives and parliament representatives.

Incumbent President Emmerson Mnangagwa is searching for a second and last five-year time period in workplace as head of state consistent with the nation’s structure.

Mnangagwa’s primary rival is Nelson Chamisa, the 45-year-old opposition chief, who says he has the next to trigger an upset.

Listed below are 5 the reason why this election is so hotly contested.

Financial system

With excessive unemployment, a neighborhood forex that’s quickly dropping worth towards the USA greenback, and hyperinflation that has eroded buying energy, the financial system can be a serious determinant on this yr’s elections.

Half the inhabitants lives in excessive poverty. As well as, the Zimbabwe greenback is buying and selling at $1 to $6,800 US, whereas annual June inflation stood at 175.8 p.c.

Additionally, the lingering results of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine have brought on a surge in the price of meals gadgets. Farmers of key crops corresponding to maize have skilled disruptions in provide traces of commodities corresponding to wheat and fertiliser.

As such, the state of the financial system can be a central concern for voters on this election.

Beneath Mnangagwa’s watch, the financial system has shrunk, and analysts are divided about what this implies for his re-election bid.

“In contrast to in 2018, when [the president] had the benefit of being a hero of the November 2017 coup and the final feeling of giving him an opportunity, this time round he has demonstrated that  … he has no plan to make issues higher as proven by his failure to even pen a manifesto,” Bekezela Gumbo, principal researcher the Harare-based think-tank Zimbabwe Democracy Institute, informed Al Jazeera.

However Eldred Masunungure, director of the Mass Public Opinion Institute (MPOI) and a lecturer in governance and public administration on the College of Zimbabwe, disagrees.

“The financial system has been in a comatose state [but] … ZANU-PF [the Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front, Mnangagwa’s party] has supporters who will persist with it. It’s a thriller why Zimbabweans vote ZANU-PF when the social gathering is the writer of their distress. It’s a conundrum which requires an investigation by itself.”

Chamisa’s manifesto has promised “macro-economic stability characterised by single digit inflation and steady change charges”, a $100 billion financial system and the creation of two.5 million jobs in 5 years.

(Al Jazeera)

Regional stability

Zimbabwe has skilled vital political instability over the previous few many years, with violence, corruption, and authoritarianism being recurring themes.

The nation’s underperforming financial system has led to hundreds of Zimbabweans flooding neighbouring South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique for higher alternatives. An estimated two million Zimbabweans are in South Africa, and that has partly led to clashes between the settlers and the locals in a time of rising xenophobia there.

Piers Pigou, the Worldwide Disaster Group’s senior guide for Southern Africa, sees the established order persevering with.

“Certainly, issues may deteriorate on this entrance, and however the weaponising of anti-foreigner sentiment in South Africa and Botswana, it’s seemingly extra Zimbabweans will head south,” he informed Al Jazeera. “Choices for Zimbabweans are restricted, and the present financial trajectory is unlikely to mitigate such circumstances for almost all.”

“That is unlikely to have a serious impression on stability, however moderately will gasoline pre-existing tensions.”

Transparency and integrity of the method

Zimbabwe’s elections since 2002 have been marred by huge electoral violence that has left greater than 500 useless. In 2008, greater than 200 opposition supporters have been killed, in accordance with Amnesty Worldwide.

Six individuals have been killed in August 2018 when protestors demanded the announcement of election outcomes amid fears that they’d be rigged in favour of the ruling social gathering, which has been in energy since independence in 1980.

In Zimbabwe, each election has been disputed since 2002. For many years, activists have known as for reforms to reinforce the independence and effectiveness of state establishments, in addition to the transparency of the electoral course of.

An Afrobarometer survey in Zimbabwe confirmed that solely 47 p.c of Zimbabweans belief the Zimbabwe Electoral Fee (ZEC) to conduct credible elections in 2023. The survey additionally revealed that belief within the ZEC is mostly weak amongst Zimbabweans, and solely a minority of residents take into account the 2018 elections to have been free and truthful.

“These circumstances recommend that at greatest we are able to count on a continuation of the established order, selective repression and the theatre of reform,” Pigou mentioned. “I don’t suppose the elections will resolve something. Exterior gamers will solely become involved if there may be widespread violence.

Interactive_Zimbabwe_elections_2023_Zimbabwe at a glance
(Al Jazeera)

Social companies

For almost all of Zimbabweans, entry to high quality healthcare, training, and primary companies is non-existent. Public hospitals are poorly geared up and should not have important provides and medicines.

Mnangagwa, who has blamed the state of the nation on sanctions imposed by Western nations as a result of fallout from controversial land reforms within the early 2000s, says his authorities has made strides in infrastructure growth and energy era and has grown the mining financial system from $3bn in 2018 with hopes to generate $12bn in income by the tip of 2023.


Corruption has been a long-standing downside in Zimbabwe and has eroded public belief within the authorities. Simply this yr, a four-part documentary collection by Al Jazeera triggered outrage within the nation.

The collection uncovered how enormous quantities of gold are clandestinely smuggled each month from Zimbabwe, Africa’s sixth-largest gold producer, to the United Arab Emirates, aiding cash laundering by means of an intricate internet of shell corporations, pretend invoices, and paid-off officers.


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