This text explains Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 41 “Dravya Vishesha Vijnaniya Adhyaya” – Data of classes of Medication.

Dravya Vishesha Vijnaniya Adhyaya – Data of classes of Medication

अथातो द्रव्यविशेषविज्ञानीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ||१||
यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ||२||

We are going to now expound the chapter by title Dravya Vishesha Vinaniya particular information of (classes of) medicine; as revealed by the venerable Dhanvantari.
Learn – Lord Dhanwantari ‘The God of Ayurveda’

Dravya Utpatti

Genesis of gear

तत्र पृथिव्यप्तेजोवाय्वाकाशानां समुदायाद्द्रव्याभिनिर्वृत्तिः, उत्कर्षस्त्वभिव्यञ्जको भवति- इदं पार्थिवमिदमाप्यमिदं तैजसमिदं वायव्यमिदमाकाशीयमिति ||३||
 Substances (medicine) are born from the mixture of Prthvi, Ap, ejas, Vayu and  Aksa (Pancamahabhutas  or 5 main components). That (ingredient) which is predominant amongst these turns into the trigger for his or her classification reminiscent of Parthiva, Apya, Taijasa, Vayaviya and Akasiya i.e., we are able to inform that

  • that is parthiva (when prithvi mahabhuta – earth ingredient is predominant within the substance)
  • that is apya (when ap or jala mahabhuta – water ingredient is predominant within the substance)
  • that is taijasa (when teja or agni mahabhuta – hearth ingredient is predominant within the substance)
  • that is vayavya (when vayu mahabhuta – air ingredient is predominant within the substance)
  • that is akasiya (when akasa mahabhuta – ether ingredient is predominant within the substance)
    Learn – Dravya: Which means, Ayurvedic Rationalization

Dravya Bheda Classes of medicine

Qualities of Parthiva Dravya

Substances predominant in earth ingredient

तत्र स्थूलसान्द्रमन्दस्थिरगुरुकठिनं गन्धबहुलमीषत्कषायं प्रायशो  मधुरमिति पार्थिवं;  तत् स्थैर्यबलगौरवसंघातोपचयकरं विशेषतश्चाधोगतिस्वभावामिति॥४(१)॥
Substances which have the beneath talked about qualities are stated to be Parthiva (predominant of prithvi bhuta or earth ingredient). These substances are –

  • gross,
  • thick,
  • sluggish / weak,
  • steady,
  • heavy,
  • onerous,
  • outstanding in odor / odour,
  • barely astringent and usually candy in style

Advantages – These bestow stability, power, heaviness, compactness and stoutness; generally tend of shifting downward particularly.
Learn – Earth Aspect – Qualities, Capabilities, Ailments, Therapy

Qualities of Apya Dravya

Substances predominant in water ingredient

 शीतस्तिमितस्निग्धमन्दगुरुसरसान्द्रमृदुपिच्छिलं रसबहुलमीषत्कषायाम्ललवणं मधुररसप्रायमाप्यं ;
तत् स्नेहह्लादनक्लेदनबन्धनविष्यन्दनकरमिति॥४(२)॥

Substances which have the beneath talked about qualities are stated to be Apya (predominant of Ap bhuta or water ingredient). These substances are –

  • chilly,
  • static,
  • unctuous,
  • delicate / sluggish,
  • heavy,
  • shifting,
  • thick,
  • gentle,
  • slimy,
  • very juicy (tasty),
  • barely astringent, bitter, salty and prominently candy in style

Advantages – These bestow unctuousness, Pleasantness, moistening, Binding collectively, and promote secretions.
Learn – Relationship of Water Aspect With Doshas And Lifespan

Qualities of Taijasa Dravya

Substances predominant in hearth ingredient

उष्णतीक्ष्णसूक्ष्मरुक्षखरलघुविशदं रुपबहुलमीषदम्ललवणं कटुकरसप्रायं विशेषतश्चोर्ध्वगतिस्वभावमिति तैजसं; तद्दहनदारणतापनाप्रकाशनप्रभावर्णकरमिति; ॥४(३)॥
Substances which have the beneath talked about qualities are stated to be Taijasa (predominant of agni bhuta or hearth ingredient). These substances are –

  • sizzling,
  • sharp (penetrating ),
  • delicate,
  • dry,
  • tough,
  • mild,
  • viscous / clear,
  • outstanding in type / look,
  • barely bitter and salt and prominently pungent in style;
  • have the pure tendency to maneuver upwards particularly

Advantages – These bestow burning, ripening, digestion, bursting tearing, heating, illuminating, lustre and color.
Learn – Understanding Agni: Idea, Definition, Capabilities, Sorts

Qualities of Vayaviya Dravya

Substances predominant in air ingredient

सूक्ष्मरुक्षखरशिशिरलघुविशदं स्पर्शबहुलमीषत्तिक्तं विशेषतः कषायमिति वायवीयं तद्वैशद्यलाघवग्लपनविरुक्षणाविचारणकरमिति ॥४(४)॥Substances which have the beneath talked about qualities are stated to be Vayaviya (predominant of vayu bhuta or air ingredient). These substances are –

  • minute,
  • dry,
  • tough,
  • chilly,
  • mild,
  • viscid, 
  • prominently tactile (comprehensible by contact),
  • barely bitter and prominently astringent

Advantages – These bestow viscidity, lightness, tiredness / impotence, dryness and varied thought course of within the thoughts.

Qualities of Akasiya Dravya

Substances predominant in ether ingredient

श्लक्ष्णसूक्ष्ममृदुव्यवायिविशदविविक्तमव्यक्तरसं  शब्दबहुलमाकाशीयं, तन्मार्दवशौषिर्यलाघवकरमिति ॥४(४)॥
Substances which have the beneath talked about qualities are stated to be Akasiya (predominant of akasa bhuta or ether ingredient). These substances are –

  • easy,
  • minute (delicate),
  • gentle,
  • fast spreading,
  • viscid,
  • separating,
  • with un-manifest style
  • prominently has sound (trigger sound)

These bestow softness, hollowness and lightness.
Learn – Akasha Mahabhuta: Qualities, Capabilities, How To Steadiness

Sarvam Ausadham

All substances are medicines

अनेन निदर्शनेन नानौषधीभूतं जगति किञ्चिद्द्रव्यमस्तीति कृत्वा तं तं युक्तिविशेषमर्थं चाभिसमीक्ष्य स्ववीर्यगुणयुक्तानि द्रव्याणि कार्मुकाणि  भवन्ति |
तानि यदा कुर्वन्ति स कालः, यत् कुर्वन्ति तत् कर्म, येन कुर्वन्ति तद्वीर्यं, यत्र कुर्वन्ति तदधिकरणं, यथा कुर्वन्ति स उपायः, यन्निष्पादयन्ति तत् फलमिति ||५||
From the above illustration, it’s made clear that “there isn’t a substance on the planet which is not medicinal”. Substances endowed absolutely with their pure potencies and qualities, utilized in acceptable method, for specified functions, turn into efficient (carry out the capabilities effectively).

The time interval during which these substances (medicines) carry out their actions is named kala (time of motion). The actions that these substances (medicines) do (carry out) are referred to as karma (actions). That by which they carry out their capabilities is named virya (efficiency). The place or website the place they carry out their capabilities is named adhikarana (website of exercise, goal). The tactic during which they carry out these actions is named as upaya (mechanism). The end result produced by these substances as an impact of their actions is named  phala (end result, profit).
Learn – Upaya: Examination Of Means Of Motion

Bhuta – Karma sambandha

Parts and actions of Medication

 तत्र, विरेचनद्रव्याणि पृथिव्यम्बुगुणभूयिष्ठानि, पृथिव्यापो गुर्व्यः, तानि  गुरुत्वादधो गच्छन्ति, तस्माद्विरेचनमधोगुणभूयिष्ठमनुमानात् ; वमनद्रव्याण्यग्निवायुगुणभूयिष्ठानि, अग्निवायु हि लघू, लघुत्वाच्च तान्यूर्ध्वमुत्तिष्ठन्ति, तस्माद्वमनमप्यूर्ध्वगुणभूयिष्ठम्; उभयगुणभूयिष्ठमुभयतोभागम्; आकाशगुणभूयिष्ठं संशमनं; साङ्ग्राहिकमनिलगुणभूयिष्ठम्, अनिलस्य शोषणात्मकत्वात्; दीपनमग्निगुणभूयिष्ठं, तत्समानत्वात्; लेखनमनिलानलगुणभूयिष्ठं; बृंहणं पृथिव्यम्बुगुणभूयिष्ठम्; एवमौषधकर्माण्यनुमानात् साधयेत् ||६||

  1. Purgation medicine predominantly possess the qualities of Prithvi (earth ingredient) and ambu (ap – water ingredient). Each prthvi and ap are heavy. Due to their heaviness, they transfer downwards. Therefore it ought to be inferred that purgation is prominently downward in motion.
  2. Emetic medicine possess the qualities of Agni and Vayu prominently. Agni and vayu are mild. As a result of of lightness they transfer upwards. Therefore it ought to be inferred that vomiting is prominently upward in motion
  3. Medication which possess the qualities of each these teams (in different phrases, having predominance of 4 Bhutas – Prithvi, ap, Agni and  Vayu)  have motion  in each instructions (produce each purgation and vomiting).
  4. Medication that are predominantly of Akasa Bhutaare samsamana (palliatives).
  5. Medication predominance in Vayu Bhuta are Sangrahi (withholding, stopping, constipating) due to the property of inflicting evaporation of moisture.
  6. Medication predominant with qualities of Agni (tejas bhutas) are Dipana (kindling digestion, inflicting starvation) due to similarity of motion.
  7. Medication predominant with qualities of vayu and agni (Tejas) Bhutas are Lekhana( trigger scraping or scarification). 
  8. Medication predominant of qualities of Prthvi and ambu (ap bhuta) are Brmhana (stoutening).
    Learn – Vamanopaga Gana: Emesis Aiding Herbs: Assessment, Advantages, Formulations

In this fashion, the actions of medicine ought to be inferred.

Motion of bhutas (medicine containing specific combos of bhutas) on doshas

भवन्ति चात्र-
भूतेजोवारिजैर्द्रव्यैः शमं याति समीरणः |
भूम्यम्बुवायुजैः पित्तं क्षिप्रमाप्नोति निर्वृतिम् ||७||
खतेजोऽनिलजैः श्लेष्मा शममेति शरीरिणाम् |
वियत्पवनजाताभ्यां वृद्धिमभ्येति मारुतः ||८||
आग्नेयमेव यद्द्रव्यं तेन पित्तमुदीर्यते |
वसुधाजलजाताभ्यां बलासः परिवर्धते ||९||
एवमेतद्गुणाधिक्यं द्रव्ये द्रव्ये विनिश्चितम् |
द्विशो वा बहुशो वाऽपि ज्ञात्वा दोषेषु चाचरेत् ||१०||

Samirana (Vata) will get mitigated (pacified) by substances (medicine) possessing prthvi, tejas and ap bhutas (i.e., earth, hearth and water components).
Pitta shortly will get mitigated by medicine possessing Prthvi (earth), Ap (water) and Vayu (air) Bhutas.
Slesma / Kapha will get mitigated by medicine possessing Akasa (ether), Tejas (hearth) and Vayu (air) bhutas.
By medicine possessing Akasa and Vayu Bhutas, Vata turns into elevated (aggravated).
By medicine possessing Agni (Tejas) Bhuta, Pitta turns into elevated.
By medicine which possess Prthvi and Ap Bhutas, Balasa (Kapha) turns into elevated.

On this method, the predominance of qualities of Bhutas has been devoted in each substance. After rigorously figuring out two or extra of those (Bhutas), these medicine ought to be used for the Doshas for his or her lower or enhance.
Learn – Virechanopaga Gana: Purgation Aiding Herbs: Assessment, Advantages

Bhuta-Virya sambandha

Parts of Efficiency of Medication

 तत्र य इमे गुणा वीर्यसञ्ज्ञकाः शीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षमृदुतीक्ष्णपिच्छिलविशदास्तेषां तीक्ष्णोष्णावाग्नेयौ, शीतपिच्छिलावम्बुगुणभूयिष्ठौ, पृथिव्यम्बुगुणभूयिष्ठः स्नेहः, तोयाकाशगुणभूयिष्ठं मृदुत्वं, वायुगुणभूयिष्ठं रौक्ष्यं, क्षितिसमीरणगुणभूयिष्ठं  वैशद्यं; विपाकावुक्तगुणौ |
तत्र, उष्णस्निग्धौ वातघ्नौ, शीतमृदुपिच्छिलाः पित्तघ्नाः, तीक्ष्णरूक्षविशदाः श्लेष्मघ्नाः गुरुपाको वातपित्तघ्नः, लघुपाकः श्लेष्मघ्नः |
तेषां मृदुशीतोष्णाः स्पर्शग्राह्याः, पिच्छिलविशदौ चक्षुःस्पर्शाभ्यां, स्निग्धरूक्षौ चक्षुषा, तीक्ष्णो मुखे दुःखोत्पादनात् |
गुरुपाकः सृष्टविण्मूत्रतया कफोत्क्लेशेन च, लघुर्बद्धविण्मूत्रतया मारुतकोपेन च |
तत्र तुल्यगुणेषु भूतेषु रसवैशेष्यमुपलक्षयेत् |
तद्यथा- मधुरो गुरुश्च पार्थिवः, मधुरः स्निग्धश्चाप्य इति ||११||

Among the many qualities, Sita (chilly), Usna (sizzling), Snigdha (unctuous) Ruksa (dry), Mrdu (gentle), Tiksna (sharp / Penetrating), Picchila (slimy) and Visada (Viscid) are referred to as as Virya (potencies). Out of those –

  • Tiksna (sharp) and Usna (sizzling) are Agneya (predominant of agni bhuta),
  • Sita (chilly) and Picchila (slimy) are Apya (predominant of ap bhuta),
  • Snigdha (unctuousness) is from the predominance of Prthvi and  Ap Bhutas; 
  • Mrduta (softness) is from predominance of Ap and Akasa Bhutas;
  • Rauksya (dryness) is from predominance of vayu bhuta,
  • Vaisadya(viscidity) is due  to predominance of qualities of Prthvi and Vayu bhutas.

The qualities of Vipaka have been stated earlier. Usna (sizzling) and Snigdha (unctuous) mitigates Vata. Sita (chilly), Mrdu(gentle) and Picchila (slimy) mitigate Pitta. Tiksna (sharp / penetrating), Ruksa (Dry) and Visada(Visid) mitigate Kapha. Guru Vipaka mitigates Vata and Pitta whereas laghu Vipaka mitigates kapha.

Out of those, Mrdu (gentle), Sita (chilly) and Usna (sizzling) are recognizable by contact. Snigdha (unctuous) and Ruksa (dry) are recognizable by the attention (sight). Tiksna (sharp, penetrating) is recognizable by its inflicting discomfort within the mouth.
Guru Vipaka is acknowledged by elimination of urine and faeces and enhance of Kapha. Laghu Vipaka is acknowledged by non- elimination of faeces and urine and aggravation (enhance) of vata.
Qualities of Bhutas of an identical nature ought to be inferred within the completely different Rasa (tastes) for e.g, Madhura (candy) and guru (heavy) are Parthiva, whereas madhura (candy) and Snigdha (unctuous) are Apya and so forth.
Learn – Classification Of Qualities (Gunas) As per Ayruveda

भवति चात्र-
गुणा य उक्ता द्रव्येषु शरीरेष्वपि ते तथा |
स्थानवृद्धिक्षयास्तस्माद्देहिनां द्रव्यहेतुकाः ||१२||

Qualities of gear which have been enumerated thus far are the identical within the physique (the Doshas, Dhatu and Malas) additionally. The normalcy, enhance and reduce of those are as a result of (use of) substances (medicine, meals and so forth).

इति श्रीसुश्रुतसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाने द्रव्यविशेषविज्ञानीयोनामैकचत्वारिंशत्तमोऽध्यायः ॥४१॥
 Thus ends the Forty first chapter by title Dravyavishesha Vijnaniya in Sutra Sthana of Sushruta Samhita.



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