KYIV, Ukraine — For the reason that starting of Russia’s full-scale invasion, Poland has been amongst Ukraine’s staunchest supporters, offering navy and financial help, taking in hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian refugees, championing Kyiv’s place in worldwide boards and remodeling its territory into the principle conduit for Western arms shipments sure for the entrance strains.

However even among the many closest of mates, critical quarrels can come up.

Final week, Polish and Ukrainian officers clashed overtly, after Marcin Przydacz, a international coverage adviser to Polish President Andrzej Duda, mentioned that Ukraine ought to “begin appreciating the function that Poland has performed for Ukraine in current months and years.” His remarks had been in response to a rising dispute between Kyiv and Warsaw over Ukrainian grain exports into Poland, by which Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal had known as Poland’s actions “unfriendly and populist.”

Underneath a deal brokered by the European Union, Poland and 4 different neighboring nations are allowed to ban Ukrainian grain imports to guard their home farmers, however permit the grain to cross their territory into different nations. The settlement is ready to run out on Sept. 15, however Przydacz and different Polish officers have known as for extending the restrictions.

“Ukraine actually bought a whole lot of assist from Poland,” Przydacz mentioned in an interview with Polish radio in late July. “What’s most vital right now is defending the curiosity of the Polish farmer.”

Grain gross sales are an acute, if not existential, challenge for Kyiv after Russia stepped up bombing of Ukraine’s Black Sea ports final month, slicing the principle export routes to international markets.

Ukraine’s international ministry summoned Polish Ambassador Bartosz Cichocki for discussions final Monday, after Przydacz’s feedback. The next day, Polish officers known as in Ukraine’s ambassador Vasyl Zvarych for the same speak.

Relations with Ukraine in the mean time are “not one of the best,” Polish Deputy Overseas Minister Pawel Jablonski instructed Polish radio. Ukraine “shouldn’t assault its allies,” he added.

Przydacz’s feedback, and the following back-and-forth between the capitals, don’t appear to pose a menace to Ukraine’s shut relations with Poland, which date again to the beginning of Ukraine’s independence.

However the dispute additionally underlined the balancing act that Ukraine faces in attempting to sq. its personal urgent wants with these of its neighbors and supporters — allies on whom Kyiv now relies upon for its very existence — whereas additionally attempting to reduce any variations of opinion that Moscow might exploit.

The stress additionally factors to exhaustion and frayed nerves because the Russian invasion nears its 18th month, leaving some observers anxious.

I’m frightened about this as a result of, you already know, the historical past shouldn’t be given, it’s not predetermined,” Tymofiy Mylovanov, head of the Kyiv College of Economics, mentioned. “Actions of people, particularly political leaders, matter — matter quite a bit,” he mentioned. “And I feel errors might be made, and if errors are made, there can be a rift between Poland and Ukraine.”

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Thus far, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky and high Polish officers have managed to stifle any flash factors between their nations, together with an incident final 12 months when a stray Ukrainian antiaircraft missile apparently landed in Poland killing two Polish residents.

In response to the grain dispute, Zelensky, writing on the social media previously often called Twitter, mentioned that “political moments” shouldn’t spoil relations between the 2 nations and “feelings ought to undoubtedly calm down.”

He additionally pressured that Ukraine tremendously appreciated “the historic assist of Poland, which along with us has turn out to be an actual defend of Europe.”

“And there can’t be a single crack on this defend,” he added.

However there may be the potential for just a few cracks, provided that Poland as soon as managed giant parts of Ukraine, and the 2 nations share a sophisticated and generally bitter historical past.

In July, Zelensky and Duda marked the eightieth anniversary of occasions throughout World Warfare II, by which members of Ukrainian rebel models, combating to determine an unbiased Ukrainian state, launched a sequence of brutal assaults on Polish villages within the Volyn area, now in western Ukraine, killing tens of hundreds.

Zelensky joined Duda for a spiritual ceremony within the western Ukrainian metropolis of Lutsk to commemorate the occasions — a gesture of reconciliation that was extremely appreciated by Polish officers.

Nonetheless, common narratives in Poland and Ukraine nonetheless differ tremendously about what transpired 80 years in the past.

Poles name what occurred the “Volyn bloodbath” and say it was half of a bigger effort by Ukrainian forces to ethnically cleanse Poles from the area. Ukrainian nationalists say the occasions had been the results of an ongoing wrestle between Poles and Ukrainians on the time.

Duda and Zelensky collectively tweeted they had been honoring “all harmless victims” of Volyn. However in a possible reflection of the divide between their nations, Duda wrote in a separate tweet that he had joined Zelensky to “pay tribute to murdered Poles.”

The Volyn occasions are vital to a small however vocal minority of nationalist and far-right teams in Poland. Ukrainian information retailers reported in July that followers at a soccer match within the Polish metropolis of Wroclaw unfurled banners saying “Ukrainians murdered youngsters in Volyn” and “80 years of shameful silence for Volyn.”

“There are two delicate points between Poland and Ukraine, the primary is historical past and it’s been an outdated downside for years,” mentioned Wojciech Kononczuk, director of the Polish-government funded Centre for Jap Research. “The opposite problematic level is the query of this Ukrainian grain.”

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With farmers a significant voting base for Poland’s governing Regulation and Justice celebration, the grain challenge has been notably contentious for the Polish authorities which faces elections this fall.

The far-right Confederation celebration has additionally mounted a marketing campaign in opposition to what they describe because the “Ukrainization of Poland.” Ballot numbers recommend that the far-right celebration might find yourself appearing as kingmaker after the mid-October elections, elevating issues that its members might search to scale back Poland’s assist for Kyiv.

Kononczuk mentioned there have been “some emotional steps and choices” by Ukrainian and Polish officers.

He mentioned the summoning of the Polish ambassador in Kyiv to the Ukrainian international ministry was met with shock in Warsaw, particularly as Cichocki is amongst a handful of ambassadors who remained in Kyiv through the Russian siege and has been certainly one of Ukraine’s strongest diplomatic backers.

However “sympathies between Poles and Ukrainians are at an unprecedented degree,” Kononczuk mentioned, helped by “widespread notion of the safety threats” posed by Russia.

Nonetheless, the grain dispute shouldn’t be going away.

Ukraine’s agriculture minister, Mykola Solskyi, insists that restrictions on Ukrainian imports into neighboring nations should be lifted as quickly as potential.

“What would be the penalties if [Ukrainian farmers] don’t survive this 12 months?” Solskyi requested in an interview. This was “a rare scenario, even throughout an election interval,” he mentioned.

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The European Union loosened laws on Ukrainian farm exports in the beginning of Russia’s invasion, to assist the Ukrainian economic system, by which agriculture is a significant sector. Grain exports to Ukraine’s neighbors surged.

Nonetheless, in response to the leap in imports, in addition to a drop in grain costs worldwide, the European Union in Might permitted Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia to dam home gross sales of Ukrainian wheat, maize, rapeseed and sunflower seeds, whereas permitting them to transit to different nations. Nonetheless, for Ukraine producers, exporting by land additional than to neighboring nations inside the European Union sharply will increase transportation prices.

Solskyi mentioned he believed that Russia’s current choice to desert a United Nations-brokered deal that allowed grain shipments from Black Sea ports was triggered by the choice to limit Ukrainian exports in neighboring nations, which gave the Kremlin a stress level to make use of to squeeze the Ukrainian economic system.

“All of us perceive that it’s most worthwhile for us to go by sea and essentially the most handy for our neighbors,” he mentioned. “However our neighbors ought to perceive that step one for us to journey by sea is to elevate their bans.”

Nonetheless, Solskyi mentioned he was not frightened concerning the tensions that the dispute has created with Poland as “there are not any actual mates and actual companions with out dialogue.”

“Take my finest mates,” he mentioned. “If we don’t argue as soon as each two or three months, then one thing is lacking.”

Morris reported from Berlin. Serhiy Morgunov in Stuttgart, Germany, contributed to this report.

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